Followers

Subscribe this Blog

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner

Wednesday, October 3, 2012

Computer Fundamentals and Cyberlaw for Upcoming PSC Exams : ASSISTANT/AUDITOR IN GOVT.SECRETARIAT,KPSC,LFAD etc.

Video CD for Secretariat Assistant Examination 2013








kerala psc cyber law related questions and answers.
Information Technology and Cyber Laws : Fundamentals of Computers- Internet Etc Cyber Laws


Computer Fundamentals

Hardware and Software 

A computer system is made up from hardware and software. ie , tangible.
Hardware is the physical medium, for example:
  • circuit boards
  • processors
  • keyboard
  • mourse
Software is a collection of  computer program. ie, intangible for example:
  • an operating system ( Windows , Linux , Unix etc )
  • an editor
  • a compiler
  • ms word 

Computer System Units ( Input , Output and CPU )







Functions of CPU ( ALU and CU )

CPU stands for central processing unit , sometimes it is called the brain of a computer.Two typical components of a CPU are the following:


  • The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations.
  • The control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.
clock speed
The speed at which a microprocessor executes instructions. Clock speeds are expressed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz ((GHz).




Input Output Devices



Input

Keyboard
Mouse
Touch Screen
Scanner
Camera
Microphone
Light pen
optical mark reader
Bar code reader
Optical Character Reader
Magnetic Ink Character Reader
QR Reader 


Output

Printer
Monitor
Speakers
Projector
Plotter 


Input As Well As Output

Hard Disk
Floppy Disk
CD
DVD





How Computer Works ? ( POST , BIOS , Booting )ecretariatassistant.com.




Types of Booting ( Cold , Warm , Remote and iBoot )
Role of Memory and its Classification
Memory ( Primary and Secondary , Volatile and Non Volatile )
Various type of Memory and Storage Devices ( RAM , ROM , HDD , FDD , ODD etc)
Need of Formatting
Operating System and its Role .
Basics of Windows , DOS , Linux and Unix



Famous personalities in the history of Computers ( Charles Babbage , John Vohn Neumann , Blaise Pascal , Ada Lovelace , Alan Turing , James Gosling , John Mcarthy )



Charles Babbage 
(26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer who originated the concept of a programmable computer.Considered a "father of the computer", Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer. His inventions include Difference Engine and Analytical Engine.

Tim Berners-Lee 
(born 8 June 1955),also known as "TimBL", is a British computer scientist and the inventor of the World Wide Web. He made a proposal for an information management system in March 1989,and on 25 December 1990, with the help of Robert Cailliau and a young student at CERN, he implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP) client and server via the Internet.

Ada Lovelace
(10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron and now commonly known as Ada Lovelace, was an English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine; she sometimes considered the world's first computer programmer.

John Vohn Neumann

December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician and polymath who made major contributions to a vast number of fields. He formulated stored program concept , the working principle of modern computers. Von Neumann's design for a self-reproducing computer program is considered the world's first computer virus, and he is considered to be the theoretical father of computer virology.

Alan Turing

23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954), was a British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, giving a formalisation of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. Alan Turing was considered as the Father of Computer Science.


Dennis Ritchie 
(born September 9, 1941; October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist who "helped shape the digital era.". He created the C programming language and, with long-time colleague Ken Thompson, the Unix  .


Vint Cerf
(born June 23, 1943) is an American computer scientist, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet",sharing this title with American computer scientist Bob Kahn.


John Mcarthy
(September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist. He invented the term "artificial intelligence" (AI), developed the Lisp programming language family, significantly influenced the design of the ALGOL programming language. He was considered as the father of Artificial Intelligence.


James Gosling
(born May 19, 1955 near Calgary, Alberta, Canada) is acomputer scientist, best known as the father of the Java programming language.

Douglas Engelbart(born January 30, 1925) is an American inventor, and an early computer and internet pioneer. He is best known for his work on the challenges of human–computer interaction, particularly while at his Augmentation Research Center Lab in SRI International, resulting in the invention of the computer mouse.




Artificial Intelligence , Expert Systems, Mechatronics and Nano Technology


Internet 

History about Internet  ( ARPANET , WWW , GOPHER , Tim Berners Li )

Father of Internet : Vinton Gray "Vint" Cerf




ARPANET : The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the world's first operational packet switching network and the progenitor of what was to become the global Internet.

WWW ( World Wide Web )
Sir Timothy John "Tim" Berners-Lee, (born 8 June 1955),also known as "TimBL", is a British computer scientist and the inventor of the World Wide Web.

GOPHER 
The Gopher protocol is a TCP/IP application layer protocol designed for distributing, searching, and retrieving documents over the Internet.

Browsers , The softwares used for viewing websites. ( Internet Explorer , Google Chrome , Mozilla Firefox , Safari etc )

Browsing & Navigation
Website & Webportals
Search Engines , Online Encyclopedia ( About Google , Yahoo, Bing , wikipedia )
E-Commerce ( Web cart , Non-Repudiation , EFT )




Cyber law and Web security

Definition of Cyber law , Cyber Crime , Cyber Lawyer etc

Cyber Crime
Cyber crime is unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or a target or both.

We can categorize Cyber crimes in two ways
The Computer as a Target :-using a computer to attack other computers.
e.g. Hacking, Virus/Worm attacks, DOS attack etc.

The computer as a weapon :-using a computer to commit real world crimes.
e.g. Cyber Terrorism, IPR violations, Credit card frauds, EFT frauds, Pornography etc.
Cyber Crime regulated by Cyber Laws or Internet Laws.


Indian IT Act 2000 ( amendments in 2006 and 2008 )


In May 2000, both the houses of the Indian Parliament passed the Information Technology Bill. The Bill received the assent of the President in August 2000 and came to be known as the Information Technology Act, 2000. Cyber laws are contained in the IT Act, 2000.

This Act aims to provide the legal infrastructure for e-commerce in India. And the cyber laws have a major impact for e-businesses and the new economy in India. So, it is important to understand what are the various perspectives of the IT Act, 2000 and what it offers.

The Information Technology Act, 2000 also aims to provide for the legal framework so that legal sanctity is accorded to all electronic records and other activities carried out by electronic means. The Act states that unless otherwise agreed, an acceptance of contract may be expressed by electronic means of communication and the same shall have legal validity and enforceability. Some highlights of the Act are listed below:

Chapter-II of the Act specifically stipulates that any subscriber may authenticate an electronic record by affixing his digital signature. It further states that any person can verify an electronic record by use of a public key of the subscriber.

Chapter-III of the Act details about Electronic Governance and provides inter alia amongst others that where any law provides that information or any other matter shall be in writing or in the typewritten or printed form, then, notwithstanding anything contained in such law, such requirement shall be deemed to have been satisfied if such information or matter is -
rendered or made available in an electronic form; and accessible so as to be usable for a subsequent reference.

The said chapter also details the legal recognition of Digital Signatures.

Chapter-IV of the said Act gives a scheme for Regulation of Certifying Authorities. The Act envisages a Controller of Certifying Authorities who shall perform the function of exercising supervision over the activities of the Certifying Authorities as also laying down standards and conditions governing the Certifying Authorities as also specifying the various forms and content of Digital Signature Certificates. The Act recognizes the need for recognizing foreign Certifying Authorities and it further details the various provisions for the issue of license to issue Digital Signature Certificates.

Chapter-VII of the Act details about the scheme of things relating to Digital Signature Certificates. The duties of subscribers are also enshrined in the said Act.

Chapter-IX of the said Act talks about penalties and adjudication for various offences. The penalties for damage to computer, computer systems etc. has been fixed as damages by way of compensation not exceeding Rs. 1,00,00,000 to affected persons. The Act talks of appointment of any officers not below the rank of a Director to the Government of India or an equivalent officer of state government as an Adjudicating Officer who shall adjudicate whether any person has made a contravention of any of the provisions of the said Act or rules framed there under. The said Adjudicating Officer has been given the powers of a Civil Court.

Chapter-X of the Act talks of the establishment of the Cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal, which shall be an appellate body where appeals against the orders passed by the Adjudicating Officers, shall be preferred.

Chapter-XI of the Act talks about various offences and the said offences shall be investigated only by a Police Officer not below the rank of the Deputy Superintendent of Police. These offences include tampering with computer source documents, publishing of information, which is obscene in electronic form, and hacking.



Security Breeches ( Spamming , Spoofing , Phishing , Hacking etc )
Spam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: Web search engine spam, spam in blogs etc. Email spam, also known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quantities to an indiscriminate set of recipients. A person who creates electronic spam is called a spammer.

Spoofing
Email spoofing is email activity in which the sender address and other parts of the email header are altered to appear as though the email originated from a different source.

Types of Hackers & Ethical hacking

Hacker means someone who finds weaknesses in a computer or computer network, though the term can also refer to someone with an advanced understanding of computers and computer networks.

White Hat Hacker
A white hat hacker breaks security for non-malicious reasons, perhaps to test their own security system or while working for a security company which makes security software. The term "white hat" in Internet slang refers to an ethical hacker.

Black Hat Hackers
Black hat hackers break into secure networks to destroy data or make the network unusable for those who are authorized to use the network.

Grey Hat Hacker
A grey hat hacker is a combination of a Black Hat and a White Hat Hacker.




Cryptography ( Encryption and Decryption Techniques )
Cryptography is the science of secret writing. This word emerged from the greek words 'krupto' means secret and 'graph' means writing.

Encryption is the process of transforming plain text to unreadable scrambled text called cipher text.
Decryption is the reverse process of encryption , ie it converts unreadable cipher text back to plain text.


Need of Protocols like HTTPS and SSL
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a widely used communications protocol for secure communication over a computer network.

HTTPS provides authentication of the web site and associated web server that one is communicating with, which protects against Man-in-the-middle attacks. Additionally, it provides bidirectional encryption of communications between a client and server, which protects against eavesdropping and tampering with and/or forging the contents of the communication.
Eavesdropping is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent.


VIRUS , WORMS & TROJANS
VIRUS stands for Vital Information Resources Under Siege. VIRUS is a computer program .
Antivirus programs are used to detect the presence of VIRUS in computer .VIRUS programs have unique code pattern called VIRUS Signature.  Virus programs are categorized accordingly by analyzing this code pattern.
Neumann's design for a self-reproducing computer program is considered the world's first computer virus, and he is considered to be the theoretical father of computer virology.

Spyware
Spyware is a type of malware (malicious software) installed on computers that collects information about users without their knowledge. The presence of spyware is typically hidden from the user and can be difficult to detect. Some spyware, such as keyloggers, may be installed by the owner of a shared, corporate, or public computer intentionally in order to monitor users.



Common Abbreviations in Computer Science

AGP  : Accelerated Graphics Port
ALU  : Arithmetic and Logic Unit
API    : Application Programming Interface
AVI   : Audio Visual Interleaving


BASIC : Beginner's all-purpose symbolic instruction code
BBS     : Bulletin Board System
bcc       : blind carbon copy
BIOS   : Basic input/output system
BIPS    : Billion instructions per second
BMP    : Bit Map


CAD :computer aided design
CASE: computer aided software engineering
CGA: Color Graphics Array
COBOL :common business oriented language
CPU: central processing unit




DBA: database administrator
DBMS :database management system
DCE :Data Communications Equipment
DNS :Domain Name System
DTP: desktop publishing



EBCDIC: extended binary coded decimal interchange code
EDP : electronic data processing
ENIAC: Electronic Numerical integrator And Calculator 
EOF :end of file
EGA :Enhanced Graphics Adapter

FAPI :Fingerprint Aware Application Program Interface 
FAT : file allocation table
FDD: floppy disc drive
FORTRAN :formula translation
FTP :File Transfer Protocol



GB :Gigabyte
GIGO :Garbage In, Garbage Out
GPRS :General Packet Radio Service
GPS: Global Positioning System
GSM :Global Shared Memory / Global System for Mobile



HDD :Hard Disk Drive
HGP: Human Genome Project
HTML :HyperText Markup Language
HTTP :HyperText Transfer Protocol
HTTP-NG :HTTP Next Generation
HTTPS : HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure










secretariat assistant exam objective questions.



Q . Keyboard designed to reduce the risk of wrist and hand injuries.
1) ANSI Keyboard 2) Qwerty Keyboard 3)Ergonomic Keyboard 4) Virtual Keyboard

Q. Eudora is a
1) e-mail client 2) web editor 3) File compression utility 4)Anti Virus


Q. Unsolicited bulk emails received from unknown source are called
1) captcha 2) worms 3) Trojan 4) spam

4.Symbol used to represent ‘decision making ’ in a flowchart
1) Oval 2) Circle 3) parallelogram 4) Rhombus

5.Process of finding useful pattern from a huge database is known as
1) Redundancy 2)Data Mining 3)Data digging 4)Normalization

6. User defined tags are possible using
1) HTML 2)DHTML 3)WML 4)XML

7. Table maintained by operating system to manage disk space used for file storage
1)FAT 2)space table 3)TAT 4)Index table

8. Symbol used to make an absolute reference to column in MS Excel
1)$ 2)@ 3)# 4)&

9. What does pixel means
1)Picture element 2)Storage unit 3)speed factor 4)None of these

10.SEO technics, attempt unfairly to redirect search results to a particular target page
1.Spoofing 2.Spamdexing 3.Optimizing 4.Querying

11.The terms SaaS and PaaS related to
1.Data Security 2.MS Office 3.Cloud computing 4.Artificial Intelligence

psc secretariat assistant exam. related to cyberlaws
cyber laws psc questions  for  Secretariat Assistant exam


IT , Computer and cyber law questions for sec assistant exams.kerala psc cyberlaw related questions and answers , Cyberlaw IT ACT 2000 etc

2 comments:

Sandy Shaw said...

Nice Article! Thanks for sharing with us.
Network Concept

Sandy Shaw said...

Nice Article! Thanks for sharing with us.
Network Concept

Total Pageviews

RankMaker Ver 3.0 ! This week only!!. RankMaker is a Software found very useful for PSC Exam Peparation. Download the Software Now

HSST CS / CA Practice Session Starts Here

Click to Read More

+2 result 2014 +2 result May 08 +2 Results to be announced on May 9 2013 2013 state film awards accenture air force jobs india airforce jobs airtel algorithm android android gk android quiz Answer Key : Junior Assistant Grade II Company/ Corp / LDC ( 490/2011 ) - 13/07/2013 Answer key : LDC 2013 Kasargod answer key jail warden july 17 2012 answer key Solved Question paper of SPECIAL BRANCH ASSISTANT - S.B.C.I.D - CATNO - 347-12 Held on 26/10/2013 Answer key thrissur ldc 2013 answer key veo exam kozhikode answer key wayanad district ldc 2014 apple assistant auditor brilliance answer key. ASSISTANT GRADE II KERALA STATE HOUSING BOARD questions Audio CD avatar award 2010 awards and prize ayurveda medical officer vacancies BANK JOBS best actress Beverages bmrcl model questions books and authors brilliance brilliance answer key brilliance secretariat answer key . brilliant answer key Brilliant entrance bsnl tablet phone Btech engineers wanted calicut university allotment 2013 Calicut University Asst Grade Answer Key CAPE questions careers indian airforce Catagory 489/2011 Junior Assistant Exam Grade II CDS CDS Exam 2013 chemistry questions china coast guard career 2012 combined Defence Service combined graduate level (tier-i) examination 2013. computer blog COMPUTER GK computer notes Computer Questions computer science group computer science paper 3 net june 24. Computer Science Question Bank computer teacher conductor conductor test answer key correspondance Cricket records current affairs current affairs 2013 current affairs 2014 cut off mark asst grade 13/7/2013 cut off marks CWE Clerk Exam Result cyber law for secretariat assistant exam cyber law sections Data Entry delhi teacher vacancies Dena Bank dhse result 2013 dhsekerala.gov.in Direction Arivinte Pedakam direction calicut Direction calicut bank coaching direction coaching calicut Doctors recruitment in large scale double medalist indian Doubtful Questions in Computer Science Electrical Engineering Radio Engineering Computer Engineering Instruments Technology Information Technology M.Sc. (Electronics) english video cd exam alert exam notifications facebook psc group farook college Father of FCI Jobs Female warden final rank list Fire and Rescue Services gandhi quiz in malayalam. general english gk gk 2012 gk nick name GK Questions GK Today : subject of today's google doodle gk update for psc sec assistant exam 2012 jan Google Adwords recruitment gulf university jobs Haryana PSC Health Inspector higher secondary teacher history hsst gk questions housing board assistant answer key. hpsc hse result 2012 hsst HSST Computer hsst computer application hsst computer application 2012 exam hsst computer guide download hsst computer science hsst computer science answer key 2012 hsst computer science coaching online hsst cs search result hsst economics http://dhsekerala.gov.in/ http://www.secretariatassistant.com/ IBM Recruitment ibps IBPS CLERK ibps clerk result 2012 IBPS CWE PO SECOND ibps online ibps po ibps rural banks IBPS Score card ICT PROJECT ICT vacancies idea IFS india thozhilvartha Infosys instruction to fill online application inventions gk ipv6.0 release IT IT and Cyber law Questions IT Jobs IT QUESTIONS IT Questions for secretariat assistant exam IT Quiz IT Quiz 2012 IT Quiz College IT Quiz HSS ITBP jail warden JOBS UPSC kannur keam medical result 2012 kerala medical engineering exam 2013 result checking kerala plus two results 2013 kerala postal assistant previous question paper kerala psc Kerala psc : lecturer exam : Free Study material and syllabus kerala psc accountant kerala psc ebook kerala psc exam computer syllabi kerala psc exam notification alert kerala psc exam syllabus kerala psc last grade exam 2014 Kerala PSC LGS Questions kerala psc news kerala psc notifications kerala psc previous questions kerala psc questions Kerala PSC Questions and Answers kerala psc questions solved kerala psc VEO Questions kerala sarkari kerala sarkari naukri kerala thozhilvartha keralapsc ldc kochi metro jobs 2013 kollam kannur ldc 2013 answer key kottayam kpsc kpsc hsa kpsc HSA previous and model questions kpsc ldc ranklist kpsc pharmacist kpsc police constable exam solved paper 23/6/2012 KPSC Questions kseb ksrtc ksrtc questions ksrtc questions 2012 KTET Result 2012 KWA LDC Questions lab assistant last grade 2014 questions LAST GRADE ONLINE COACHING last grade psc questions last psc online application 2010 LD Clerk Kozhikode Short List LD clerk main list LD Clerk short list LDC ldc Thrissur 2013 Questions LDC 2011 Cut off LDC 2013 Pathanamthitta Questions ldc answer key ldc arivinte pedakam download ldc gk ldc kannur answer key 2013 LDC Kollam Answer Key 2013 ldc kozhikode crash course 2014 ldc kozhikode top rank holders 2012 LDC Ranklist ldc score LDC supplementary list 2011 2012 leap year gk lecturer LGS Exam kerala psc LGS exam orientation programme LGS EXAM PAPER LGS Questions and answers mainlist malayalam malayalam psc ldc questions free download malayalam questions MCA ENTRANCE MCA ENTRANCE COMPUTER AWARENESS QUESTIONS MCA SYLLABI metro rail jobs Miscellaneous Quiz Questions 2012 MNC jobs mock test model psc ldc MTS POST OFFICE APPLICATION FORMAT Name of Post: Junior Assistant/Cashier/Assistant Grade 2/Junior Clerk Category Number: 489/2011 Department: KSFE LTD National Film Awards 2012 NCRE NET Exam 2012 Questions and answerkey available new pattern new pattern ldc model questions NIMCET NIMHANS jobs Nobel prize GK NORKA ROOTS : Phone Numbers notifications ODEPC RECRUITMENT ODEPC WEBSITE olympics 2012 news update service one time registration one word questions online psc online question bank oracle origami gk oscar 2010 awards oscar 2012 awards oscar live stream palakkad param pharmacist psc questions pharmacist vacancies pharmacist vacancy plus two questions postal assist sorting asst answer key 2014 postal assistant postal assistant / sorting assistant exam 2014 postal assistant 2013 Questions postal assistant exam pattern and syllabus postal assistant notification 2012 -13 postal assistant solved papers postal coaching previous ldc question probationary officer Probationary Officers psc answer key psc computer questions psc current affairs psc current affairs questions PSC Data Entry Operator Vacancies psc distance education programmes PSC DISTRICT AND REGIONAL OFFICES ADDRESS PHONE NUMBER psc exam alert psc exam CD psc exam coaching psc exam computer questions psc exam forester psc exam notification PSC Exam questions PSC Exam Search Engine psc exams psc Excise Preventive Officer questions psc gk psc ldc app download PSC LDC MATHS QUESTIONS psc malayalam questions psc mock exam psc mock test psc model quetions ladc exam PSC NOTIFICATIONS psc online psc pharmacist notification PSC Questionaire psc questions PSC Questions GK psc rank lists psc science gk questions PSC Secretariat Assistant Exam 2013 PSC SMS PSC Solved Question Paper 2013 PSC Trainer Kit. psc training psconline psctrainer QBLP questionbank questions about cyber laws with answers for assistant exam. quiz cricket Quiz environment Quiz HSS Quiz software RAILWAY RankMaker RankMaker 3.0 RankMaker 4.0 RankMaker Software RBI Assistant 525 vacancy Reserve conductor May 26 kerala psc questions and answers in malayalam RESERVE CONDUCTOR SOLVED PAPER RPSC RRB sachin sail india jobs sailor 2013 sarkari jobs sarkari-naukri 2012 science objective questions sebi vacancies sec asst cutt off mark secone phase ksrtc test kollam secretariat assistant exam questions. secretariat assistant exam. short list Shwetha menon SI of Police Questions slogans / mottos of wipro solved paper solved paper kannur kollam districts solved paper ldc questions Solved Question paper Solved Question paper of High Court Assistant solved question papers computer operator. solved questions paper sec asst exam 8/6/2013 sorting assistant spoken engllish ssc job vacancy ssc pre result 2012 sslc result study material free download super computer of india syllabi syllabus TCS Teacher Maldives teacher vacancies THRISSUR CORPORATION ETC. tnpsc tamilnadu psc librarian college education Trivandrum ugc ugc answer key Dec 2012 ugc answer key june 2012 ugc net ugc net 2013 june answer key ugc net cs ugc net dec 2012 exam centres ugc net dec 2012 exam centres allotted ugc net exam user feedback on answer key ugc net june 2012 ugc net preparation UKPSC UN Jobs Uniform forces Questions UNITED INDIA INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED (UIIC) universities in india update rankmaker URLs VEO questions answer key VHSE REsults 2013 video cd voccational instructor in computer application 95/2011 answer key. Walter Lewin lectures who is the father of artificial intelligence ? who is the father of computer science ? Who's Who ? Yathra YPP “GENERAL AWARENESS”

LinkWithin

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Disclaimer : Blog Policies

This blog publishes various general knowledge. errors and omissions expected. The Knowledge documents in this blog meant only to increase the general awareness of the readers. If any of the information available on this blog violates or infringes any of your copyright protection, leave a comment . This blog makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correctness or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, or delays in this information. The information contained in this blog is subject to change without notice. You may use contents in this blog only for personal use. Reproduction and republishing of any contents from here to any other websites or blogs is strictly prohibited.