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Saturday, May 17, 2014

ANALYST (CHEMICAL TESTING LABORATORY) INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCE

FURTHER DETAILS REGARDING MAIN TOPICS OF 
PROGRAMME NO. 07/2014 (Item No. 24) 

ANALYST (CHEMICAL TESTING LABORATORY) INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCE 

(CATEGORY NO. 339/2010) 


PART I-QUESTIONS BASED ON TECHNICAL QUALIFICATION 
UNIT I 
Fluid dynamics: - Types of fluid flow in pipes, viscous and turbulent flow- Reynolds's 
Experiment - Bernoulli's Theorem: -- Expressing flow rates as velocity, volume rate and 
mass rate - Equation for continuity. 

Flow measurement: - Flow metering- classification of flow measuring equipments. 
Hydrodynamics method, mechanical method and special methods. Orifice meter, 
venturimeter, pitot tube and weirs. Rotameter - working principles, materials of 
construction and applications meters . 

Pipes and pipe fittings: Pipes and tubes - pipe and tube standards, 

Gaskets and packing: -Sealing of rotating shafts - stuffing boxes and mechanical seals 
Fundamentals of flow control mechanism and valve classification- Gate valve and its 
variations like sluice valve and slide valve - Plug valve (cocks) - 2 way and 3 way and 
non-lubricating plug valves, Ball valves, stop valves - Globe valve, Butterfly valve, 
Diaphragm valve 

Pump classifications - Positive displacement and Centrifugal. 

Positive displacement pumps - reciprocating and rotary - reciprocating tvpe - piston 
plunger pumps - simplex and duplex - single acting and double acting. 

Diaphragm pumps - Rotary -- gear pump, screw pumps, lobe pumps. 

Centrifugal pumps: - Basic working principles, types of impellers for different fluids, 
single suction and double suction type. Priming of centrifugal pumps and self-priming 
pumps. Turbine pumps, NPSH cavitations, 

Fans, Blowers, compressors - Positive displacement blowers, turbo blowers, 
turbo compressors, positive displacement compressors, vacuum pumps and ejectors. 
Nash Hytor. 
UNIT II 

Heat transfer by conduction in solids - steady state and unsteady slate fl-. Fourier's law 
of conduction - Rate equation for heat flow - steady state heat flow conduction through 
single wall - derivation of equation -- Thermal conductivity - units. 
  
Theorv of convection - film concept of heat transfer temperature gradient in forced 
convection - derivation of overall heat transfer coefficient from individual heat transfer 
coefficient . 

Forced convection: Heat transfer by forced convection inside tubes for laminar and 
turbulent flow - Dimensional equation - simple problems - mechanism of natural 
convection - heat transfer in boiling liquids - saturated boiling — elementary idea of 
black body - gray body - emissivity -emissive power -- radiation laws. Stefan Boltzmann 
equation. 
Parallel flow - counter current flow - cross flow heal exchangers - Fouling effect 
calculation - Heat transfer equipment - Heaters and heat exchangers - single pass shell 
and tube heaters Multi pass healers - floating head healers - use of baffles on shell side 
of heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers - plate type heat exchangers - air fin 
cooler. 
Evaporation - Examples of industries where evaporation is used as a unit operation. 
Tvpes of evaporators - basis of classification - horizontal tube - vertical tube - climbing 
film - falling film - forced circulation evaporators - examples of application of each in 
industries -continuous operation and control of evaporators - evaporator accessories -
Multiple effect evaporators. 

UNIT III 

Diffusion 
Molecular diffusion - molar flux - Fick's rate equation 

Absorption 
Mechanism of Absorption - conditions of equilibrium between gas and liquid -
Henry's law - factors controlling rate of absorption - equipments for absorption 
operations -packed tower - packing materials - characteristics of packing - liquid 
distributors - channeling. 

Adsorption 
Physical and chemical adsorption - various types of adsorbents - applications - 
manufacture of adsorbents; ion exchange - principle — molecular sieves 

General mechanism of diffusional processes - Definitions and mathematical expressions 
for Molal humidity - Absolute humidity - Relative humidity - percentage humidity - 
Humid volume - Humid heat - Enthalpy and dew point - Humidity chart. Adiabatic 
saturation temperature -- wet bulb temp cooling towers - atmospheric - natural and 
forced draft, cross flow type -- humidification and dehumidification - air condition. 

Purpose and industrial applications - drying equipment – classifications - tray dryer 
tunnel dryer - rotary dryer - turbo dryer - spray dryer -drum dryer - cylinder dryer - 
fluid bed dryer -dry basis and wet basis of expression of moisture content - equilibrium 
moisture content - free moisture content - bound and unbound water - mechanism of 
batch drying of solids - constant rate and falling rate period. 

Distillation as an inter phase mass transfer- industrial application - definition of 
terms - less volatile, more volatile, low boiling, high boiling - vapour - liquid equilibrium 
diagrams and their importance. Ideal and non-ideal solutions - Roault's law - calculation of X-Y data using Roault’s law. Azeotropes - maximum and minimum 
boiling - volatility and relative volatility - calculation of relative volatility of a binary 
mixture. Types of distillation-equilibrium - simple distillation, steam distillation. 

Rectification, Azeotropic distillation, extractive distillation, and molecular 
distillation. 

Rectification 
Applications of leaching - batch and continuous - heap leaching - percolation tanks - 
shank system - agitated vessel - continuous counter current decantation - Boll man 
extractor -Rotocel extractor - Kennedy extractor 

Liquid - Liquid extraction- Raffinate - Extract - construction details of mixer 
settlers -spray and packed towers . 

Crystallization 
Application - equilibrium curve for a solid - liquid system - yield of crystals - solubility 
- saturation - super saturation - crystal growth - methods of super saturation - material 
balance equation-Construction details of T ank crystallizer - cooling crystallizer. 
evaporator crystallizer. 
UNIT IV 

Filtration and Centrifugation 
Filtration and its application in industry -Classification of filters atmospheric, pressure 
and vacuum filters - field of application and constructional details, working and 
application of the following. Sand filter- open - Filter presses - plate and frame filter 
press, Leaf filters - pressure and vacuum types - Moore filter - Continuous filter - rotary 
drum - working cycle – selection of filters - filter aids, their function and applications. 

Centrifugation: 
Centrifugal force developed in centrifuges - classification of centrifuges - batch- semi 
continuous, continuous - top driven - bottom driven - perforated solid bowl - super 
centrifuges - operation - field of application 

Size Reduction 
Nature of the materials to be crushed - hardness, structure, moisture content, Types of 
crusting equipments, coarse crushers -Intermediate crushers -fine grinders -open 
circuit grinding - closed circuit grinding. Laws of crushing - Kick's law - Rittingers law -
Bonds law - Jaw crusher - gyratory - crusher -crushing rolls - angle of nip - capacity, 
hammer mill - ball mill - critical speed- Raymond mill - tube mill Average particle size - 
specific surface of mixture, volume surface mean diameter - arithmetic mean diameter - 
mass mean diameter - shape factor. 

Size Separation 
Screens: Tyler and U.S. standard screens -Screen analysis: efficiency and capacity of 
screens Types of screening equipment - grizzlies - trammels, shaking screens, vibrating 
screens Air separation methods: cyclone separator - air separator - bag filter. 
Electrostatic precipitator - settling chambers - cyclone separator - venturi scrubbers - 
separation of solids in liquids - Stokes law and its application, terminal velocities- 
Sedimentation, Agitation and Mixing Sedimentation separation in liquid medium - 
batch sedimentation - application of batch settling tests to design of continuous 
thickness - Kynch theory, determination thickener area - equipments -double cone 
classifier - Dorr classifier - gravity continuous thickeners - elutriator jigging - tabling -light and dense medium separation based on difference in densities and its application. 
Principle of froth flotation cells, froth floatation cells - simple flow sheet for floatation 
plant, magnetic separators - Purpose of agitation - agitation equipment - propellers, 
paddles . 

Fluidiization, Storage and Transportation of Solids Storage of Gases and Liquids 
Mechanism of fluidization conditions for fluidization - batch fluidization - boiling effect 
- minimum porosity 
UNIT V 
 Process Control 
Recorders, timers - transducers-Characteristics of measuring elements and process 
control system - open and closed loop systems -block diagrams of back ward feed, 
forward feed controls - types of control modes - on-off, proportional, integral, 
derivative, and their combinations. Characteristics of these controls.- Pneumatic 
systems for the above modes of control. Self operated controllers, elementary principles 
of controls — its advantages over the other, final control elements - control valves, 
actuators, pneumatic, hydraulic, electric and mechanical and solenoid valve 

Computerized Control 
Descriptive treatment of the following: -Telemetering devices. Analog and digital signal 
transmission, A/D, D/A converter, analog and digital-computer control system - 
microprocessor, distributed control svstem – SCADA, Comparison of SCADA with DCS. 

PROPERTIES OF STEAM & BOILERS 
Properties of steam - Explanation of properties of steam such as total heat of water, 
latent heat, total heat of steam, super heat, dryness fraction. Function of boilers - 
classification - working principle - fire tube and water tube boilers - Simple vertical 
boiler - Cochran boiler- Boiler mountings - accessories. 

OPERATIONAL MAINTENANCE OF CHEMICAL PLANT EQUIPMENTS Principle of 
management - types of maintenance - maintenance schedule – records - replacement - 
maintenance of chemical plant equipments - Troubles and remedial actions - start up 
and commissioning of equipments - plant inspection - vessel entry - testing methods -
non destructive testing methods - radio graphic & ultrasonic test. 

PLANT LOCATION AND LAY-OUT 
Location of Chemical Plant - Important factors considering Plant Location and 
Plant Lay-out - Master Plot Plan and Unit Plot Plan - Chemical Plant 
Buildings - Roofing - Flooring - Ventilation and Illuminations. 


PART II – QUESTIONS BASED ON DEGREE IN CHEMISTRY 

Module 1 
Environment, nature of environmental threats and the role of chemistry, 
chemistry of the air, water, soil environment, Factors affecting environment, types of 
environment. Importance of clean air , pollution, orgin of pollution, Air pollutants, 
Health and environmental effects of pollutants. Water p o l l u t i o n , visible signs of w a t e r pollution, effects of water pollution, water quality Standard Biological 
magnification and bioaccumulation. Sewage, Sewage analysis BOD and COD. Soil 
pollution-control measures, noise p o l l u t i o n and noise control, chemical pollution, 
pesticide pollution, thermal pollution-e f f e c t s And control measures. 
Module 2 
Purification of organic compounds, detection and e s t i m a t i o n of elements, molecular 
f o r m u l a . H y b r i d i s a t i o n , bond, lengths bond angles bond energy, l o cal i ze d 
chemical bonds, Van der Waals i n t e r a c t i o n , H y p e r c o n j u g a tion, resonance, 
aromaticity, Inductive and field effects, hydrogen bonding. Type of reagents 
Electrophiles and nucleophiles. Types of organic reactions, energy considerations. 
Reactive intermediates-carbocations, carboanions, free radicals, carbenes, arynes and 
nitrenes. Method of determination of reaction mechanisms. Types of isomerism, Optical 
isomerism, Relative and absolute configuration, Geometrical isomerism and 
conformational isomerism. 

Module 3 
Idea of De Broglie matter w a v e , Heisenberg u ncer t ainit y principle, Atomic 
orbitals, Schrodingcr wave equation, quantum numbers, Shape of s, p, d orbitals. 
Aufban and Pauli exclusion principals, Hund's mu l t i pl i c i t y rule, Electronic 
configuration o f t h e elements. Atomic and ionic radii, I o n i z a t i o n energy, Electron 
affinity and electronegativity. Trends in periodic table and applications in pr e d it i ng 
and e x p l a i n i n g the chemical behaviour. Some c h a r a c t er i st i c s t u d y o f s, p, d and f 
block elements. 
Module 4 
Basic concepts-system, surroundings, types of systems, E x t e n s i v e and In t e n s i v e 
properties, macroscopic properties, state functions and path functions, type of process, 
D e f i n i t i o n of internal energy and enthalpy. Heat capacit ies at constant volume and 
at constant pressure. Mathematical statement of first l a w , r e v e r s i b l e process and 
maximum work. 


Thermo chemistry – s t a n d a r d s t ates, e n t h a l p i e s of formation, combustion and 
neutralisation. Hess's l aw and its a p p l i c a t i o n s . 
Properties of l iqu ids, Surf ace tension and its measu rement, factor s 
affect ing surface tension, v isco sity, Refr act ive index and its 
determination. 

Chemical kinetics, rate of reaction, factors influencing the rate of a reaction, order of 
chemical reaction, determination of order of reaction, theories of chemical kinetics, 
effect of temperature on rate of a reaction. Arrhenius equation, Concept of activation 
energy. 

PART III – CURRENT AFFAIRS & RENAISSANCE IN KERALA 

General Knowledge 

Geography of India- Physical Features- Climate-Soils- Rivers- Famous Sites – Etc. – 
Demography- Economic and Social Development-Poverty Alleviation-Economy and 
Planning-Etc. – History of India- Period from 1857 to 1947- National Movement- Etc. 
 Current affairs 

Important World, National and Regional Events related to the Political and Scientific 
fields, Sports, Cinema and Literature etc. 


Renaissance in Kerala 
Important Events/ Movements/Leaders 

Brahmananda Swami Sivayogi, Chattampi Swami, Sree Narayana Guru, Vagbhatananda, 
Thycaud Ayya, Ayya Vaikundar, Poikayil Yohannan (Kumara Guru), Ayyankali, Pandit 
Karuppan, Mannathu Padmanabhan, V.T.Bhattathirippad, Dr. Palpu, Kumaranasan, 
Vakkom Moulavi, Blessed Kuriakose Elias Chavara, Etc 






NOTE: - It may be noted that apart from the topics detailed above, questions 
from other topics prescribed for the educational qualification of the post may 
also appear in the question paper. There is no undertaking that all the topics 
above may be covered in the question paper. 

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