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Tuesday, November 11, 2014


Chemistry of Biomolecules:
Carbohydrate, Protein, Lipid, Nucleic acid
Physical Chemistry:
Viscosity, Surface tension, Osmosis, Donnan membrane equilibrium, dialysis, diffusion,
adsorption, partition coefficient.
Chemistry, Structure, transport process across biomembranes
Instruments and Methodology:
Photometry, spectrophotometry, flourometry, Flame photometry, atomic absorption
spectroscopy, Nephelometry, NMR Chemiluminescence, flow cytometry, Electron Spin
resonance, Mass spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, centrifugation, Iyophilization, Ph meter,
Sonicator, Chromatography and Electrophoresis.
Digestion and Absorption:
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals.
Caloric values of food, BMR, respiratory quotient, glycemic index
Exchange of gases, Dissociation carve, Bohr effect, Chloride shift free radical formation,
Phase I and II, Microscomal and non microsomal metabolism of drugs – role of cytochrome
P450 enzymes and subtypes.
Metabolism and Inborn errors of metabolism:
Carbohydrate, Protein, Lipids, Nucleic acid, heme, vitamins (A, D, E, K, B and C), Minerals
(Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, Fe, Cu, Zn, I, Co, Ni, F) Hormones:
Classification, mechanism of action, regulation, secretion, Chemistry, Metabolism, biological
functions and disorders of Hypothalamus and pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Pancreas,
Adrenal, Gonadal hormones.
Electron Transport Chain:
Thermodynamics of electron transport, Components and different complex in ETC, inhibitors
of ETC, mitochondrial electron transporters and shuttle systems.
Classifications, co-enzymes, cofactors, mechanism of enzyme action, factors affecting enzyme
action, enzyme kinetics, enzyme inhibition, regulatory enzymes, enzyme immobilization,
clinical enzymology, uses of enzymes in industrial technology, Isoenzymes.
Function Tests:
Liver, Renal, pancreas, Thyroid, Gastric, Fetoplacental, Gonadal, Malabsorption studies.
Buffer System:
Body buffers, acid base regulation, preparation of buffer solution, electrolytes and blood gas
Glass Wares:
Calibration, cleaning of glassware for various investigations.
Body fluid analysis, analysis of renal and biliary calculi, purification of water and quality
Inter conversion of units:
Molar, Millimolar, Normal, Milliequivalent, Molality, osmolality, percentage.
Principles, procedure and normal values of various parameters analysed in clinical chemistry
Quality Control:
Internal and external QC program, QC charts, QC samples
Various types of Autoanalysers (semi and fully autoanalysers), advantages and disadvantages
Antigen, antibody, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, immunoglobulin classes antigen –
antibody reactions, complement system, hypersensitivity reactions, MHC, cytokines, cell
mediated and humoral immunity, Autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases, vaccines and
immunization. Immunological Techniques:
Agglutination, precipitation, immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis, complement fixation,
Immunofluioresence, ELISA, RIA, Nephelometric Immunoassay, Chemiluminescence
immunoassay, Western blotting, Flow cytometry, FACS.
Molecular Biology:
Cell cycle, DNA replication, DNA repair, Transcription, genetic code, Post transcriptional
processing, reverse transcriptase, protein synthesis, post translational modifications, protein
targeting, inhibitors of protein synthesis, gene expression, Operon, chromosomes, gene
amplification, gene switching, recombination, enhancers, mutations.
Recombinant DNA Technology:
Restrition endonuclease, DNA ligase, Vectors, Chimeric molecules, cloning, Vectors, Gene
library, Hybridisation, blotting techniques and applications, RFLP, Gene therapy,
Transgenesis, DNA finger printing, DNA sequencing, DNA probes, Hybridoma technology,
PCR, Pre-natal diagnosis of genetic disorders.
History and scope of microbiology, safety methods in microbiology laboratory, sterilization
and disinfection, testing of disinfectants, quality control in sterilization, microscopes, different
types, principles, application, parts of each type of microscope, micrometry, Bacterial cell,
stains and staining methods, classification of medically important bacteria, fungus, viruses and
parasites, bacterial metabolism, growth curve, growth requirements, culture media, cultivation
and identification methods. Bacterial genetics, Genetic Engineering.
Systematic and Diagnostic bacteriology
Medically important bacteria, bacterial infections, pathogenesis, epidemiology, isolation and
identification, clinical specimens and diagnostic methods, zoonotic infections, antibiotic
resistance mechanisms, antibiotic sensitivity tests, serological tests for the diagnosis of
bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections.
Parasites and diagnostic parasitology,
Classification, geographical distribution, habitat, morphology, life cycle, pathogenesis,
epidemiology, immunology, prophylaxis, laboratory diagnosis of medically important parasites
and their infections, protozoa and helminthes – intestinal, blood and tissue parasites collection,
transportation, examination of clinical specimens for parasites.
Systematic and Diagnostic Mycology:
Classification, geographical distribution, structure and morphology, mode of transmission,
pathogenesis, epidemiology, immunology, prophylaxis, laboratory methods for the diagnosis of
fungal infections, various techniques used for the identification of fungi culture media in
mycology, stains in mycology, serological tests for mycotic infections, preparation of fungal antigens & their standardization, superficial mycoses, subcutaneous mycoses, systemic
mycoses opportunistic mycoses, miscellaneous mycoses, mycotoxins, allergic fungal diseases,
animal models in mycology.
Medical Virology:
Systemic and clinical virology, pathogenesis, processing of clinical specimens and laboratory
diagnosis of viral infections, emergence and re-emergence of viral infections, diagnostic tests
in virology, applied and recent advances in medical microbiology – nosocomial infections,
epidemiological aspects of control of infections and diseases, typing methods in bacteriology,
surgical and trauma related infections.
Microbial bio-film-prevention, control and removal, role of microbiology lab for infection
control in hospital, emerging infectious diseases, public health microbiology – microbial
analysis of water, air, milk and food, molecular diagnostic methods in microbiology,
automation in diagnostic microbiology, management and organization of microbiology
laboratory, quality in the clinical microbiology laboratory, genetically modified
microorganisms, molecular diagnostic techniques relevant to medical microbiology, PCR and
its modifications, Principles of recombinant DNA technology.
Care and management of laboratory animals, handling feeding, breeding of common laboratory
animals, bleeding o f lab animals, killing of animal and disposal of carcasses, animal
inoculation, animal house organization and management.
Haemopoiesis, anaemia, lukemia – classification and lab diagnosis, thalassemia,
haemoglobinpathies, invitro and invivo anticoagulants, coagulation factors, mechanism,
disorders and lab diagnosis, investigations of thrombotic tendency, platelet function tests,
complete blood cell count and special laboratory investigations in hematology laboratory,
automation in hematology laboratory.
Fixatives, decalcification, tissue processing, routine and special stains in histopathology
laboratory, immunohistochemistry, molecular markers of malignant neoplasm, micotomy and
frozen sectioning, tissue processing for electron microscopic investigations, automation in
histopathology laboratory, museum mounting techniques.
Chromosone organizations and relative diseases, karyotyping, bonemarrow preparation and
culture techniques of various cytogenetic samples, banding techniques, sex chromatin
Cytology of female genital tract, respiratory tract, cytology of body fluids, cytocentrifuge, cell
block, routine and special stains used in diagnostic cytology, FNAC.
Blood group antigens, grouping techniques, screening of donors, diseases transmitted through
blood transmission, nucleic acid testing, compatibility testing, ICT, DCT, Blood collection,
preservation, processing and storage, blood component preparation, aphaeresis, autologus and
exchange transfusion, blood transfusion reactions and its management, hemolytic disease of
new born, blood substitutes. HLA typing and cross matching, MHC antigen and its importance in transplantations,
molecular diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis of haematological disorders, FISH, Flow
cytometry, Immuno phenotyping, autoimmune disorders, tumor markers, quality control and
quality assurance in haematology, cytology, histopathology, clinical pathology laboratory and
blood bank.
Urine analysis, stool, semen analysis, sputum, body fluids, CSF, pregnancy testing, safety in
pathology laboratory.
Part IV
General Knowledge, Current Affairs & Renaissance in Kerala.
NOTE: - It may be noted that apart from the topics detailed above, questions
from other topics prescribed for the educational qualification of the post may
also appear in the question paper. There is no undertaking that all the topics
above may be covered in the question paper.

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