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Friday, April 29, 2016

IT & Cyberlaw: Who coined the Term ' Bit ' ?

  • Claude Elwood Shannon was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory". Shannon is famous for having founded information theory with a landmark paper that he published in 1948. 

  • Claude E. Shannon first used the word bit in his seminal 1948 paper A Mathematical Theory of Communication. He attributed its origin to John W. Tukey, who had written a Bell Labs memo on 9 January 1947 in which he contracted "binary digit" to simply "bit".

Related Questions in IT 

SET -1

1.      Who coined the term ‘Computer Virus’?
a)      Frederick Cohen                 
b)       William Gibson
c)      John Von Neumann
d)      Charles Babbage
Answer: ( a)
·       Frederick Cohen is an American Computer Scientist and best known as inventor of computer virus defense techniques.
·       The term VIRUS stands for Vital Information Resource Under Siege.
·       A computer virus is a malware that, when executed, replicates by inserting copies of itself into other computer programs, data files, or the boot sector of the hard drive.
·       William Gibson coined the term ‘ Cyber Space’ in his novel ‘ Neuromancer ‘ published in 1984.
·       John Von Neumann formulated the ‘ Stored program concept ‘.
·       Charles Babbage, the Father of Computer who invented Analytical Engine and Difference Engine

2.      Operating system is a type of
a)      Application software
b)      Utility software
c)      System software
d)      None of  these
                   Answer: (c)
·       Operating System is System Software.
·       Operating system acts as an interface between user and hardware.
·       System software is a type of computer program that is designed to run a computer’s hardware and application program. 

3.      What is the expansion of the term ASCII
a)      American security code for information Interchange
b)      American scientific code for information Interchange
c)      American Standard Code for Interchange information
d)      American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Answer: (d)
·       ASCII Stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
·       ASCII is a character-encoding scheme used in a Computer.
·       ASCII uses 7 bits or 8 bits to represent character.
·       ASCII-7 can represent 128 characters and ASCII-8 can represent 256 characters.

4.      Attempt to acquire sensitive information such as passwords and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity.
a)      Phishing
b)      Spoofing
c)      Hacking
d)      None of these
Answer: (a)
·       Phishing is an attempt to acquire sensitive information such as passwords and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity.
·       Phishing is a cybercrime carried out by email spoofing.
·       Spoofing is a cyber crime mostly used for concealing the identity of the sender impersonating another computer system.

·       Hacking is the practice of modifying the features of a system, in order to accomplish a goal outside of the creator's original purpose.
·       The person who is consistently engaging in hacking activities, and has accepted hacking as a lifestyle and philosophy of their choice, is called a hacker.

 5. Process of ‘knowledge discovery in databases' is
a)  Data tuning
b) Data Diddling
c) Data Fragmentation
d) Data Mining

Answer: (d)
·       Data mining is the   extraction of patterns and knowledge from large amount of data.
·       Database Tuning is the activity of making a database application run more quickly.
·       Changing data before or during entry in to computer system is called Data Diddling
·       Data Fragmentation means in some operating system's file systems, a data file over a certain size is stored in several fragments rather than in a single contiguous sequence of bits in one place on the storage medium.

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